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Breast cancer screening,Diagnosis and treatement Cervical cancer, Ovarian cancer, Vaginal cancer, Vulval cancer, Womb cancer/endometrial or uterine cancer

Gynaecological cancer

Women's cancers (gynaecological cancer)

 Uterine cancer is diagnosed usually with a pelvic exam, Pap test, ultrasound, and biopsy

Cancers that start in a woman's reproductive system are called gynaecological cancers. The treatment you need depends on where the cancer started. Knowing the type of cancer means you can get the correct information about it. 

Ask your doctor to advise you if you aren't sure which type you need information about.

Being diagnosed with cancer, and the treatment that follows, can be a very difficult thing to cope with. The support of family, friends, healthcare professionals and other people who have had a similar experience can be hugely helpful during this time. 

‘Gynaecological cancer’ refers to the five cancers that start in a woman’s reproductive system namely Cervical cancer, Ovarian cancer, Vaginal cancer, Vulval cancer, Womb cancer (also known as endometrial or uterine cancer)

Cervical cancer

Cervical cancer develops from the tissues of the cervix. It is also called cancer of the uterine cervix. It is the third most commonly diagnosed gynaecological cancer in Australian women.

The cervix is part of the female reproductive system, which also includes the uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, vagina and vulva. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina. It is sometimes called the neck of the uterus. 

Functions of the cervix include:

  • producing some of the moistness that lubricates the vagina

  • producing the mucus that helps sperm travel up to the fallopian tube to fertilise an egg from the ovary

  • holding a developing baby in the uterus during pregnancy. During childbirth, the cervix widens to allow the baby to pass down into the birth canal (vagina).

The cervix is covered by 2 kinds of cells: squamous and glandular. Squamous cells are flat, thin cells found in the outer layer of the cervix (ectocervix). Glandular cells are found in the cervical canal (endocervix). The point where these 2 cells meet is called the squamocolumnar junction. This is where cervical cancer starts.

Cervical dysplasia-Pap test, HPV test in Kannur, Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure (LEEP), cold knife conisation

Cervical cancer stages

Ovarian cancer

Ovarian cancer occurs when abnormal cells in the ovary, fallopian tube or peritoneum grow in an uncontrolled way.

The ovaries are a pair of organs in the female reproductive system, located on each side of the uterus. They produce eggs and hormones.

Ovarian cancer cells can spread to other parts of the body to form secondary cancers, in a process called metastasis.

To evaluate the extent of a patient’s cancer using three key factors:

  • T (Tumor) This indicates the extent of the tumor. Is it confined to the ovaries or fallopian tube or has it reached the uterus, bladder, or other nearby pelvic organs?

  • N (Node) Has the cancer spread to nearby lymph nodes in the pelvis or the para-aortic lymph nodes around the aorta (the body’s main artery that runs from the heart down behind the abdomen and pelvis)?

  • M (Metastasis) Has the cancer spread to the fluid around the lungs or to distant organs or tissues, like the liver?

Doctors also add a number or letter to each T, N, or M assessment to provide additional detail. Typically, the higher the number, the more advanced the cancer.

A calculation that combines the T, N, and M ratings ultimately leads to an overall stage.

Fallopian tube cancer and primary peritoneal cancer (cancer in the thin layer of tissue that lines the abdomen) are closely related to ovarian cancer

Breast cancer screening,Diagnosis and treatement Cervical cancer, Ovarian cancer

Endometrial cancer (also referred to as uterine or womb)

Womb cancer is sometimes called uterine cancer by doctors as uterus is the medical name for the womb. Or they may call it endometrial cancer. The endometrium is the lining of the womb. Endometrial cancer is the most common type of womb cancer. 

Endometrial cancer is cancer that arises from the lining of the uterus (called the endometrium). It is the most common type of cancer of the uterus, and the most common gynaecological cancer diagnosed Indian women.

There is separate information about the other main type of cancer of the uterus, called uterine sarcoma. If you have been told you have ‘cancer of the uterus’, ‘cancer of the womb’ or ‘uterine cancer’, and you are not sure if it is endometrial cancer or uterine sarcoma, check with your doctor.

Uterine cancer is the abnormal (malignant) growth of any cells that comprise uterine tissue. The buildup of cancer cells may form a mass (malignant tumor). Non-cancer cells that form a mass are termed benign tumors.

Although the exact causes of uterine cancers are not known, risk factors include women with endometrial overgrowth (hyperplasia), obesity, women who have never had children, menses beginning before age 12, menopause after age 55, estrogen therapy, taking tamoxifen, radiation to the pelvis, family history of uterine cancer, and Lynch syndrome (most commonly seen as a form of inherited colorectal cancer). Common signs and symptoms of uterine cancer are ;

abnormal vaginal bleeding (most common symptom),
vaginal discharge,
pain with urination and/or sex, and
pelvic pains.

Uterine cancer is diagnosed usually with a pelvic exam, Pap test, ultrasound, and biopsy. Occasionally, CT or MRI may be done to help confirm the diagnosis.


causes of uterine cancer

Uterine cancer stages (0 to IV) are determined by biopsy, chest X-ray, and/or CT or MRI scans. Treatment options may include one or more of the following: surgery, radiation, hormone therapy, and chemotherapy. Treatment depends on the uterine cancer stage, your age, and general health with uterine cancer stage IV as the most extensive and usually caused by the most aggressive type of cancer cells. You and your doctors can decide what treatment plan is best for you.


Surgical therapy usually involves removal of the uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, adjacent lymph nodes, and part of the vagina. Radiation therapy may be by external radiation or by internal radiation (brachytherapy).

Fallopian tube cancer

Fallopian tube cancer is a cancer that arises from one or both of the fallopian tubes.

The fallopian tubes are the tubular structures that connect the upper, outermost part of the uterus with the ovary, and provide a means for fertilisation of the female egg.

In women of reproductive age, an egg is released from one of the ovaries into the adjacent fallopian tube once each month during ovulation.

The tube helps to move the egg along its journey to the uterus with small hair-like projections called cilia, which line the tube’s insides.

In the uterus (also called the womb), the egg is either fertilised by male sperm or discarded during menstruation.

Vaginal cancer

Vaginal cancer occurs when abnormal cells in the tissues of the vagina grow in an uncontrolled way.

The vagina is a muscular tube that extends from the opening of the uterus (called the cervix) to the external part of a woman’s sex organs (the vulva). The vagina is also called the birth canal. The uterus is also called the womb.

The vagina is the passageway through which menstrual blood flows, sexual intercourse occurs, and a baby is born.

Vulval cancer

Vulval cancer occurs when abnormal cells in the tissues of the vulva grow in an uncontrolled way. It can also be called cancer of the vulva, vulva cancer or vulvar cancer.

The vulva is the external part of a woman’s sex organs.

It consists of soft fatty tissue covered with pubic hair called the Mons Pubis (Mount of Venus), which is above the labia. The labia have two outer larger lips (the labia majora), which surround two inner smaller and thinner lips (the labia minora).

At the top, where the labia minora join, is a highly sensitive organ called the clitoris. When stimulated, the clitoris fills with blood and enlarges in size. Stimulation of the clitoris can result in sexual excitement and orgasm, or climax.

Just below the clitoris is the opening through which women pass urine (the urethra), and below this is the vagina, a tubular passage through which menstrual blood flows, sexual intercourse occurs and a baby is born.

The area of the skin between the vulva and anus is called the perineum. All these structures are visible from outside the body.

Cancer of the vulva may involve any of the external female sex organs. The most common areas for it to develop are the inner edges of the labia majora and the labia minora.

Less often, vulval cancer may also involve the clitoris or the Bartholin’s glands (small glands, one on each side of the vagina). It can also affect the perineum

Pregnancy Care

Your pregnancy is one of the most exciting times of your life. At Fathima hospital, we will help you enjoy the journey with the support of our expert team, in modern private surroundings.

Families have trusted us for generations at this special time, and we have an enviable international reputation for private maternity care.

Our expertise enables us to safely look after you and your baby, whether it is your first child, your third child, you are expecting twins, or if you or your little one has additional health needs. Whatever your situation, we have the right team to support you. Our packages have been devised with you in mind, to give you the time and attention you need to make the birth of your child as special as possible.

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Fathima hopsital - Maternity care facilities Process Chart

maternity care at kannur Fathima Hospital

​The best practices to ensure the that a mother gets utmost care during pregnancy and labor. Here is a list of our resources enabling to help you prepare for everything, from conception to delivery and beyond. Fathima hospital is fully equipped to comply with the maternity care Process chart. 

Treatments and Procedures

The Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology has the capability and facilities to deal with a diverse range of cases and complexities in partnership with specialty services such as Foetal Medicine, Anaesthesia, Critical care, high risk, painless labour, Gynaecological surgeries for fibroid, prolapsed, endometriosis, ovarian cysts, Laparoscopic and hysteroscopic surgeries

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