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lower genital tract dysplasia a gynecological disease condition

Lower Genital Tract Dysplasia

Lower Genital Tract Dysplasia

gynecological abnormal change in women can be diagnose and treated at Fathima hospital Kannur

Lower genital tract diseases are abnormal changes in the lower portion of the female reproductive system which includes the cervix, vulva and vagina. These abnormal changes are called pre-cancerous lesions or intraepithelial neoplasia.

Cervical Dysplasia

It is defined as an abnormal change in the surface of the cervix which is the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina.


Almost all cases of cervical dysplasia are caused by high-risk types of the Human Papillomavirus (HPV). It usually affects women of ages between 25 to 50, although it can occur at any age.

Risk factors

There are several risk factors associated with cervical dysplasia such as:

  • HPV infection

  • Sexuality history

  • Smoking

  • A weak immune system

  • Other sexually transmitted infections


Usually, women with cervical dysplasia don’t have any symptoms. Symptoms usually don’t start until the cervical dysplasia becomes cancer. Symptoms include:

  • Pelvic pain

  • Pain during intercourse

  • Vaginal bleeding after intercourse

  • Vaginal discharge with a foul odour


There are two tests for cervical dysplasia-Pap test and HPV test. The pap smear test is performed during a pelvic exam. The American Cancer Society recommends starting cervical cancer screening at the age of 21, regardless of the age when a woman becomes sexually active.

If cervical dysplasia is suspected in the pap smear test, then your doctor will perform a thorough evaluation of the cervix with a colposcopy. In a colposcopy, the doctor will look at your cervix with an electric magnifying instrument to look for abnormal cells.


Treatment for lower genital tract diseases depends upon the type and severity of the dysplasia. If you have been found to have severe cervical dysplasia, then the doctor will recommend removing the affected area of dysplasia.

The two most common procedures for removing areas of dysplasia are the Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure (LEEP) or cold knife conisation.

The LEEP can be performed as an outpatient procedure or in the doctor’s room. The doctor will ask you to lie down on an examination table and put your feet in stirrups. Then an instrument called a speculum is inserted into the vagina to hold the vagina walls so that the doctor can view the inside of the vaginal walls and the cervix.

The cervix is numbed by injecting local anaesthesia in it. An electrically charged loop made of thin wire is inserted into the vagina and up to the cervix. The loop is passed across the cervix, removing the entire area of dysplasia.

Cold knife conisation is a minor surgery in which cone-shaped portion of the cervix is removed using a scalpel.


It is also called vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN) which starts inside the vagina. It is a condition in which the vagina undergoes abnormal changes.

VAIN is relatively rare than cervical dysplasia. It is typically found in women of 40 and 60 years, although it can occur at any age.

Symptoms and Risk Factors

Women with VAIN usually don’t have any signs. Risk factors associated with VAIN are:

  • Exposure to the drug DES while in the mother’s womb.

  • HPV infection

  • History of cervical dysplasia

  • History of cervical cancer

  • Tobacco use

  • The weak immune system from HIV


During a pelvic exam, the doctor performs a thorough examination of the vagina to look for VAIN. If a doctor sees some abnormal changes, then the doctor will recommend a biopsy to confirm the diagnosis.

Colposcopy is also performed for a more thorough examination of the vagina.


The low-grade VAIN goes away on its own. The doctor recommends frequent examinations with pap tests and colposcopy every few months to make sure that they don’t progress to high-grade VAIN or vaginal cancer.

Treatment options for VAIN include the following:

Laser ablation: It is a minor procedure performed in the operating room under anaesthesia. It uses a laser beam to burn away the VAIN.

Topical therapy: In this therapy, medicine is applied to the area of VAIN. The medication is used for several weeks.

Surgical excision: In this procedure, the area of VAIN along with a small margin of normal tissue surrounding the VAIN is removed.

Radiation: In severe cases, radiation is used to kill abnormal cells.


Vulvar Dysplasia also called Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia (VIN), are abnormal changes in the skin of the vulva. The vulva includes the area outside of the opening of the vagina.


Women with VIN usually don’t have any symptoms, but the possible symptoms of VIN are:

  • Itching on the vulva

  • Visible changes in the colour of the skin of the vulva

  • Cracks or ulcers in the skin of the vulva

  • Growth on vulva skin that looks like a wart

Screening and Diagnosis

There are no screening tests for early detection of VIN. The diagnosis of VIN is made through a pelvic exam.


The doctor performs a thorough examination of the vulva to look for VIN. If the doctor sees any abnormal changes, then he will perform a biopsy to confirm the diagnosis.


Laser ablation: It is a minor procedure performed in the operating room under anaesthesia. It uses a laser beam to burn away the VIN.

Topical therapy: In this therapy, medicine is applied to the area of VIN. The medication is used for several weeks.

Surgical excision: In this procedure, the area of VIN along with a small margin of normal tissue surrounding the VIN is removed.

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Fathima hospital, backed by specialists from multiple disciplines, specialises in handling high risk pregnancies. It is important to note that women, who are diagnosed with high-risk issues, mostly go on to have a normal pregnancy and a healthy delivery.

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Fathima hospital offers pain relief programs that are globally applied to ease pain during labour. There are a number of options to ensure painless delivery, many of which pregnant women here are not aware of.

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Fetal medicine focuses on the care of pregnant women where there is a need to monitor the health and wellbeing of the unborn child (fetus). This includes monitoring the rate of the baby’s growth, as well as diagnosing and managing fetal disorders and abnormalities using both invasive and non-invasive methods.

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Our specialized fertility experts are highly experienced, and their technology and strict processes ensure high success rates. IVF (In-Vitro Fertilization) is a type of assisted reproductive technology which involves a series of procedures to treat fertility and assist with the conception of child.

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Fathima Hospital has customized Antenatal programmes designed to make you feel safe, good and happy, these programmes educate you on the process of childbirth and the different stages of labour - in all, encouraging natural birthing as much as possible.

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Postnatal exercises are important for you. They help you regain the strength of your abdominal muscles and help prevent lower back injury and other complications like abdominal organs from "drooping forward" due to lack of support. They also help you regain a flat stomach.

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Our OB/GYN surgeons offer a variety of traditional and minimally invasive surgical procedures: Tubal ligation, removal of ovarian cysts, fibroids, growths from the cervix, Removal of the uterus (hysterectomy), ovaries, Hysteroscopy etc.  

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Fetal medicine, which is an extension of the branch of Ultrasonography, treats the fetus as a patient in utero for any problems it might have. It comprises of Fetal scanning, Procedures such as Amniocentesis, chorionic villus sampling, and cord blood sampling, Screening tests and interpretation of the results.

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When it comes to your little one’s health, you need to be extra sure. Hence, you want to know all the whys and when of vaccinations to be administered to your child from the time of birth. Keeping that in mind, we hand you over a vaccination schedule for your baby with all the mandatory and optional vaccines prescribed from the time of birth.

Pregnancy Care

Each pregnancy is unique and you have the right to be involved in all decisions affecting you and your baby. A good relationship with your maternity care provider can make a big difference in planning your pregnancy care. At Fathima hospital, Department of Obstetrics includes a team of expert gynaecologists, foetal medicine Specialist, physiotherapists, and trained and experienced nursing staff. Our hospital is equipped with advanced neonatal care team supported by state-of-the-art NICU infrastructure to ensure that complex and high-risk pregnancies can be managed including extremely premature birthings.

Pregnancy Trimesters

At Fathima Hospital, we provide comprehensive consultations, lab testing, ultrasound scan to provide the best possible care during your 1st Trimister to 3rd Trimister. A typical pregnancy lasts 40 weeks from the first day of your last menstrual period (LMP) to the birth of the baby. It is divided into three stages, called trimesters: first trimester, second trimester, and third trimester. The fetus undergoes many changes throughout maturation. A woman will experience many changes during the pregnancy like morning sickness, or nausea and vomiting due to pregnancy, at 6–8 weeks. A pregnant woman might also feel very tired and notice that she is more emotional than usual due to hormonal changes. 

Types of Delivery

Few things in life are more exciting than the birth of a new baby. This has been the case throughout human history, but childbirth options for new mothers have advanced to make the experience more safe. Fathima hospital offers comfortable maternity suites that convert into state of the art delivery rooms. An easy birth and a perfectly executed birth plan is ideal. But we know that even the most carefully planned birth can take twists and turns. In those cases, it's important to be prepared for alternative delivery methods. 

Pregnancy Scans

A range of tests is available if you are pregnant. These tests can confirm your pregnancy and also monitor your baby’s development in the womb. Regular check-ups with your gynecologist, fetal medicine specislists are an important part of pregnancy care, including information and advice about what tests you and your baby will need. Checking the general health of the mother and baby, the different kinds of tests available to pregnant women include: tests to confirm pregnancy, maternal health screening, routine screening tests (these tell you how likely it is that your baby has a certain health condition), diagnostic tests – for pregnancies at increased risk (these tell you more accurately if your baby has a certain health condition).

Pregnancy Complications

Complications can arise in pregnancies for many reasons. Sometimes a woman’s existing health conditions contribute to problems. Other times, new conditions arise because of hormonal and body changes that occur during pregnancy. They can involve the mother’s health, the baby’s health, or both. Some women have health problems that arise during pregnancy, and other women have health problems before they become pregnant that could lead to complications. It is very important for women to receive health care before and during pregnancy to decrease the risk of pregnancy complications. If you are receiving treatment for a health problem, your health care provider might want to change the way your health problem is managed.

High Risk Pregnancy

A high-risk pregnancy is one that threatens the health or life of the mother or her fetus. It often requires specialized care from specially trained providers. Some pregnancies become high risk as they progress, while some women are at increased risk for complications even before they get pregnant for a variety of reasons. Early and regular prenatal care helps many women have healthy pregnancies and deliveries without complications. A high-risk pregnancy may be one that involves chronic health problems, such as diabetes or high blood pressure; infections; complications from a previous pregnancy; or other issues that might arise during pregnancy. Treatment for high-risk pregnancy depends on the risk factors and overall health of the mother and fetus.


Ideally, women of child bearing age should be immunized before becoming pregnant to protect their babies against various diseases. Pregnancy should not deter a woman from receiving vaccines that are safe and will protect both her health and that of her unborn child. Extreme care has to be taken to avoid those vaccines that harm the unborn baby. Pregnant women who aren’t up-to-date on their immunizations may be susceptible to diseases that can harm them or their unborn child. If you’re pregnant, talk to your doctor about which vaccines you may need and whether you should get them now or wait until after your child is born.  

Bad Obstetric History

Pregnancy loss is a frustrating and challenging problem for couples and clinicians alike. Miscarriage is often associated with guilt, embarrassment and depressive states. This is particularly true when the patient presents with subsequent pregnancy with added concerns of primary or secondary infertility, irregular menses, absent or irregular ovulation, a known history of uterine fibroids, a family history of miscarriage, advancing age, medical history and a prior history of pregnancy complications. It certainly warrants a detailed consultation and reassurance with a practitioner committed to pregnancy loss evaluation.

Ectopic / Tubal Pregnancy

Pregnancy begins with a fertilized egg. Normally, the fertilized egg attaches to the lining of the uterus. An ectopic pregnancy occurs when a fertilized egg implants and grows outside the main cavity of the uterus. An ectopic pregnancy most often occurs in a fallopian tube, which carries eggs from the ovaries to the uterus. This type of ectopic pregnancy is called a tubal pregnancy. Sometimes, an ectopic pregnancy occurs in other areas of the body, such as the ovary, abdominal cavity or the lower part of the uterus (cervix), which connects to the vagina. An ectopic pregnancy can't proceed normally. The fertilized egg can't survive, and the growing tissue may cause life-threatening bleeding, if left untreated.

Multiple Pregnancy

A multiple pregnancy occurs when one egg (ovum) splits before implanting or when separate eggs are each fertilized by a different sperm. Identical twins or triplets occur with the fertilization of a single egg that later divides into two or three identical embryos. Identical twins or triplets have the same genetic identity, are always the same sex, and look almost exactly the same. Fraternal multiples develop from separate eggs that are each fertilized by a different sperm. Fraternal twins might or might not be of the same sex and might not necessarily resemble each other any more than two siblings from the same parents might.

Pregnancy Care

Your pregnancy is one of the most exciting times of your life. At Fathima hospital, we will help you enjoy the journey with the support of our expert team, in modern private surroundings.

Families have trusted us for generations at this special time, and we have an enviable international reputation for private maternity care.

Our expertise enables us to safely look after you and your baby, whether it is your first child, your third child, you are expecting twins, or if you or your little one has additional health needs. Whatever your situation, we have the right team to support you. Our packages have been devised with you in mind, to give you the time and attention you need to make the birth of your child as special as possible.

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Fathima hopsital - Maternity care facilities Process Chart

maternity care at kannur Fathima Hospital

​The best practices to ensure the that a mother gets utmost care during pregnancy and labor. Here is a list of our resources enabling to help you prepare for everything, from conception to delivery and beyond. Fathima hospital is fully equipped to comply with the maternity care Process chart. 

Treatments and Procedures

The Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology has the capability and facilities to deal with a diverse range of cases and complexities in partnership with specialty services such as Foetal Medicine, Anaesthesia, Critical care, high risk, painless labour, Gynaecological surgeries for fibroid, prolapsed, endometriosis, ovarian cysts, Laparoscopic and hysteroscopic surgeries

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